Michigan Tech Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections

People, Place and Time
Michigan’s Copper Country Through the Lens of J.W. Nara, 1874-1934


Strike, Management

Mine managers, led by James MacNaughton, general manager of the Calumet & Hecla Copper Mining Company, were implacable in the face of striking mine workers. As the strike unfolded, he declined all offers by the governor to arbitrate the matter. To MacNaughton’s mind, there was nothing to negotiate, and he steadfastly refused to recognize the right of the Western Federation of Miners to speak for the miners. He told WFM president Charles H. Moyer that he would see grass grow in the streets of Calumet before he would negotiate with the union. After nearly nine months, a majority of miners voted on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1914, to end their strike. The Western Federation of Miners had lasting impact on labor-management relations in Michigan’s copper district and across the nation.

Image #: Nara 42-256

Image #: Nara 42-016